GATE Exam Pattern & Syllabus 2025
The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE), is conducted every year for engineering students to secure admissions for M.E./ M.Tech/ PhD at the IITs, NIT’s, IIIT’s and CFTIs or to secure a highprofile job in a PSU. This year, the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee is going to conduct the GATE 2025 Exam on 1st, 2nd, 15th, and 16th February 2025. Candidates planning to appear for the GATE exam must be aware of the GATE Exam Pattern and Syllabus to plan better strategies for the exam. GATE is conducted in computerbased mode for 30 papers and one can attempt any one of these papers.
GATE Exam Pattern 2025
Candidates can check here a comprehensive overview of the GATE 2205 exam pattern in the table below:
Particulars  Details 

Examination Mode  Computer Based Test (CBT) 
Duration  3 hours (180 minutes) 
Number of Subjects (Papers)  30 
Sections 

Type of Questions 

Questions for testing these abilities 

Number of Questions  10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions 
Distribution of Marks in all Papers except papers AR, CY, EY, GG, MA, PH, XH and XL 

Distribution of Marks in papers AR, CY, EY, GG, MA, PH, XH and XL 

Marking Scheme  Questions carry 1 mark and 2 marks 
Negative Marking  For a wrong answer chosen in an MCQ, there will be a negative marking. For 1mark MCQ, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2mark MCQ, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer 
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GATE Syllabus
Candidates who are planning to write the GATE 2025 Paper are advised to plan their preparation strategy today and start to execute the same in an effective manner. So, students must understand the important topics and their weightage with the help of the GATE Syllabus to ace their preparation to secure a top score in the GATE 2025.
GATE Syllabus 2025 For General Aptitude
Sl. No.  Syllabus 
1.  Verbal Ability 
2.  Quantitative Aptitude 
3.  Analytical Aptitude 
4.  Spatial Aptitude 
GATE CSE Syllabus 2025
Topics  SubTopics 
Discrete Mathematics  Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Monoids, Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions 
Digital Logic  Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floatingpoint) 
Computer Organization and Architecture  Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining, pipeline hazards. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode) 
Programming and Data Structures  Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs 
Algorithms  Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worstcase time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths 
Theory of Computation  Regular expressions and finite automata. Contextfree grammars and pushdown automata. Regular and contexfree languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability. 
Compiler Design  Lexical analysis, parsing, syntaxdirected translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation. Local optimization, Data flow analyses: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination 
Operating System  System calls, processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU and I/O scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems 
Databases  ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control 
Computer Networks  Concept of layering: OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks; Basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuitswitching; Data link layer: framing, error detection, Medium Access Control, Ethernet bridging; Routing protocols: shortest path, flooding, distance vector and linkstate routing; Fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT); Transport layer: flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets; Application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email 
GATE Mechanical Engineering Syllabus 2025
Topics  SubTopics 
Applied Mechanics and Design  
Engineering Mechanics  Freebody diagrams and equilibrium; friction and its applications including rolling friction, beltpulley, brakes, clutches, screw jack, wedge, vehicles, etc.; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; Lagrange’s equation 
Mechanics of Materials  Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; concept of shear centre; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength 
Theory of Machines  Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope 
Vibrations  Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts 
Machine Design  Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the SN diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches, springs 
Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences  
Fluid Mechanics  Fluid properties; fluid statics, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; controlvolume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings; basics of compressible fluid flow 
HeatTransfer  Modes of heat transfer; onedimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler’s charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, StefanBoltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis 
Thermodynamics  Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behavior of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations 
Applications  Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Airstandard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and airconditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Peltonwheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines; steam and gas turbines 
Materials, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering  
Engineering Materials  Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stressstrain diagrams for engineering materials 
Casting, Forming and Joining Processes  Different types of castings, design of patterns, molds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding 
Machining and Machine Tool Operations  Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multipoint cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of nontraditional machining processes; principles of work holding, jigs and fixtures; abrasive machining processes; NC/CNC machines and CNC programming 
Metrology and Inspection  Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly; concepts of coordinatemeasuring machine (CMM) 
Computer Integrated Manufacturing  Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools; additive manufacturing 
Production Planning and Control  Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning; lean manufacturing 
Inventory Control  Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems 
Operations Research  Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM 
GATE Electrical Syllabus 2025
Topics  SubTopics 
Electric Circuits: Network elements  ideal voltage and current sources, dependent sources, R, L, C, M elements; Network solution methods: KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis; Network Theorems: Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorem; Transient response of dc and ac networks, sinusoidal steadystate analysis, resonance, two port networks, balanced three phase circuits, stardelta transformation, complex power and power factor in ac circuits 
Electromagnetic Fields  Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations 
Signals and Systems  Representation of continuous and discretetime signals, shifting and scaling properties, linear timeinvariant and causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous and discretetime periodic signals, sampling theorem, Applications of Fourier Transform for continuous and discretetime signals, Laplace Transform and Z transform. R.M.S. value, average value calculation for any general periodic waveform 
Electrical Machines  Singlephase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Threephase transformers: connections, vector groups, parallel operation; Autotransformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles; DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, speed control of dc motors; Threephase induction machines: principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blockedrotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of singlephase induction motors; Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance and characteristics, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motors; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines 
Power Systems  Basic concepts of electrical power generation, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Economic Load Dispatch (with and without considering transmission losses), Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per‐unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, GaussSeidel and NewtonRaphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency Control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of overcurrent, differential, directional and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion 
Control Systems  Mathematical modeling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady‐state analysis of linear timeinvariant systems, Stability analysis using RouthHurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, root loci, Lag, Lead and Lead‐Lag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; Statespace model, Solution of state equations of LTI systems 
Electrical and Electronic Measurements  Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multimeters, Phase, Time and Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis 
Analog and Digital Electronics  Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers; Amplifiers: biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers: characteristics and applications; singlestage active filters, Active Filters: Sallen Key, Butterwoth, VCOs and timers, combinatorial and sequential logic circuits, multiplexers, demultiplexers, Schmitt triggers, sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters 
Power Electronics  Static VI characteristics and firing/gating circuits for Thyristor, MOSFET, IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and BuckBoost Converters; Single and threephase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers; Voltage and Current commutated Thyristor based converters; Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters; Magnitude and Phase of line current harmonics for uncontrolled and thyristorbased converters; Power factor and Distortion Factor of ac to dc converters; Singlephase and threephase voltage and current source inverters, sinusoidal pulse width modulation 
GATE IE Syllabus 2025
Subject  Topics 
Engineering Mathematics 

Electricity and Magnetism  Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane, and spherical charge distributions, Effect of the dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations. 
Electrical Circuits and Machines  Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; vi relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductance and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation. Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems. Peak, average and rms values of ac quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. transient analysis of RLC circuits with ac excitation. Oneport and twoport networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open, and short circuit parameters. Singlephase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Threephase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines 
Signals and Systems  Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and ztransforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and secondorder linear timeinvariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discretetime system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters. 
Control Systems  Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steadystateerrors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and leadlag compensators, statespace representation of systems; timedelay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; onoff, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers, tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves. 
Analog Electronics  Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; smallsignal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of ideal and practical operational amplifiers; applications: adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, difference amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters, oscillators, signal generators, voltagecontrolled oscillators and phaselocked loop, sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits. 
Digital Electronics  Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multivibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sampleandhold circuit, multiplexer, analogtodigital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigmadelta) and digitaltoanalog converters (weighted R, R2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, Embedded Systems: Microprocessor and microcontroller applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems, basics of distributed control systems (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC). 
Measurements  SI units, standards (R,L,C, voltage, current and frequency), systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision, propagation of errors, linear and weighted regression. Bridges: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Megohm, Maxwell, Anderson, Schering and Wien for measurement of R, L, Cand frequency, Qmeter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding. 
Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation  Resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (variable head, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement. 420 mA twowire transmitter. 
Communication and Optical Instrumentation  Amplitude and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude, phase, frequency, quadrature amplitude, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photodiode, lightdependent resistor, squarelaw detectors, and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing. UVVIS Spectrophotometers, Mass spectrometer. 
GATE CE Syllabus 2025
Topics  SubTopics 
Structural Engineering  
Engineering Mechanics  System of forces, freebody diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Frictions and its applications; Centre of mass; Free Vibrations of undamped SDOF system 
Solid Mechanics  Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, Transformation of stress; buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses 
Structural Analysis  Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis 
Construction Materials and Management  Construction Materials: Structural Steel – Composition, material properties and behavior; Concrete – Constituents, mix design, shortterm and longterm properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM; Cost estimation 
Concrete Structures  Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete beams 
Steel Structures  Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beamcolumns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beamcolumn connections, plate girders and trusses; Concept of plastic analysis beams and frames 
Geotechnical Engineering  
Soil Mechanics  Threephase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – onedimensional flow, Seepage through soils – two – dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity, seepage force; Principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; Compaction of soils; One dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Shear Strength, Mohr’s circle, effective and total shear strength parameters, StressStrain characteristics of clays and sand; Stress paths 
Foundation Engineering  Subsurface investigations – Drilling boreholes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – Finite and infinite slopes, Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s theory; Pressure bulbs, Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – dynamic and static formulae, Axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction 
Water Resources Engineering  
Fluid Mechanics  Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; Potential flow, Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth; Concept of lift and drag 
Hydraulics  Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Channel Hydraulics – Energydepth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow, gradually varied flow and water surface profiles 
Hydrology  Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface runoff models, groundwater hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s Law 
Irrigation  Types of irrigation systems and methods; Crop water requirements – Duty, delta, evapotranspiration; Gravity Dams and Spillways; Lined and unlined canals, Design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures 
Environmental Engineering  
Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment  Basics of water quality standards – Physical, chemical and biological parameters; Water quality index; Unit processes and operations; Water requirement; Water distribution system; Drinking water treatment; Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Effluent discharge standards; Sludge disposal; Reuse of treated sewage for different applications 
Air Pollution  Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, Air quality Index and limits 
Municipal Solid Wastes  Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal) 
Transportation Engineering  
Transportation Infrastructure  Geometric design of highways – crosssectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments. Geometric design of railway Track – Speed and Cant. Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design 
Highway Pavements  Highway materials – desirable properties and tests; Desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes 
Traffic Engineering  Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Traffic signs; Signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections; Highway capacity 
Geomatics Engineering  
Geomatics Engineering  Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing – Scale, flying height; Basics of remote sensing and GIS 
GATE ECE Syllabus 2025
Sl. No.  Sections  TopicWise Syllabus 
1  Engineering Mathematics 

2  Networks, Signals and Systems  Circuit analysis: Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, reciprocity. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform, Linear 2port network parameters, wyedelta transformation
Continuoustime signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications Discretetime signals: DTFT, DFT, ztransform, discretetime processing of continuoustime signals. LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay 
3  Electronic Devices 

4  Analog Circuits 

5  Digital Circuits 

6  Control Systems  Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steadystate analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; RouthHurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and rootlocus plots; Lag, lead and laglead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems. 
7  Communications 

8  Electromagnetics 
